All posts by Kirstie Blair

Industrial Labour and Cultural Engagement in the Long Nineteenth Century

‘Piston, Pen & Press’ Project

Friends’ Meeting House, 6 Mount Street, Manchester / 18-19 August 2022

This conference is designed to expand on the remit of the ‘Piston, Pen & Press’ project and to discuss and reflect upon a wider range of cultural activities engaged in by industrial workers – for example, as dramatists and theatre-goers, as musicians and composers, as artists and visitors to exhibitions and galleries – as well as considering the state of critical work in this field and new directions for research. ‘Piston, Pen & Press’ focuses primarily on Scotland and the North of England: we are also interested in papers which consider literary and other productions in Britain more widely, and in papers which connect British cultural productions to those of international industrial workers, in order to make transnational or transcultural comparisons.

Given the project’s connections with industrial heritage museums and archives, we additionally seek to explore the ways in which creative, cultural and artistic activity by workers is, or could be, included in museum holdings, and used to engage twenty-first century audiences and communities. We therefore welcome proposals from museum, library and heritage professionals and from creative practitioners, as well as from academic and independent researchers.

The conference will have three main themes:

  • Reflection – we wish to reflect on the current state of the field and identifying future areas of research.
  • Expansion – we wish to explore working-class cultural production and engagement beyond the printed page e.g. art, music, photography, drama.
  • Engagement – we wish to explore the role of working-class cultural productions in the creative and heritage sectors.


This is a free event. To register for the in-person event in Manchester, click here. If you wish to attend remotely (via Zoom), you can register here.

Draft programme, June 2022

Note: For those arriving on Wednesday 17th August, there will be an optional afternoon tour of sites in Manchester, details tbc.

Thursday, 18th August

9.00 – 9.30 Registration & coffee

9.30 – 9.45 Welcome/housekeeping

9.45 – 11.15 Panel 1: Lancashire Working-Class Women Writers

  • Jack Southern/Andrew Hobbs (University Central Lancashire) – “I am a velvet weyver/An’ my heart is oft times sad”: The world-view of a velvet weaver in Edwardian Lancashire, through the poems of Kate Hall (1874-1947).
  • Chieko Ichikawa (Nara Women’s University) – Power of Imagination: Ethel Carnie Holdsworth and Working-Class Culture of Resistance.
  • Jenny Harper (University of Reading) – Out of the House of Bondage into the Field of Liberty- Ethel Carnie Holdsworth’s Red and the Green.

11.15 – 11.30 Break

11.30 – 12:30 Panel 2: Working-class Culture & the Industrial City: Forms of Improvement

  • Mie Othelie Berg (University of Birmingham) – ‘A Moral Weapon’ – Class Interaction, Social Control and the Victorian Town Hall Organ.
  • Gordon Tait (Independent Scholar) – ‘A worthwhile original thought’: Thomas Dixon and the creation of culture in a northern town.

12:30 – 1:15 Lunch

1:15 – 2:45 Panel 3: Mutual Improvement

  • Helen Williams (Edinburgh Napier University) – ‘Twelve hundred volumes grace our shelves’: printers and their libraries.
  • Cathy Charlwood (University of Exeter)– Ebbw Vale in context: A Welsh mutual improvement success story.
  • Iona Craig (University of Strathclyde)– Miners’ Reading Rooms.

2:45 – 3 Coffee break

3 – 4 Panel 4: City Living

  • Christopher Ferguson (Auburn University) – Narrating the Nineteenth Century’s “Other” Revolution: Working-Class Writers and the Challenge of the City.
  • Serkan Culik ( Tekirdag Namık Kemal University)– Working Class Recipes: Tracing the Class in the Cookbook.

4 – 4:10 Short break

4:10 – 5 Piston, Pen & Press: Database launch and discussion

5:30 – 6:30 Jennifer Reid – performance (venue tbc)

6:30 onwards dinner

Friday 19th Aug

9.30 – 11.00 Panel 5: Recent Discoveries and Future Directions?

  • Michelle Johansen (Bishopsgate Institute) – Preserving Working-class Cultures: Charles Goss at the Bishopsgate Institute.
  • Simon Rennie (University of Exeter) – Modern Musical Adaptations of Cotton Famine Poetry.
  • Lena Wanggren (University of Edinburgh) – New Women and New Unionism: Where are the writing working women?

11.00 – 11.15 Break

11.15 – 1.15 Cultural Institutions Session: Chair Oli Betts

  • Mark Watson, HES
  • Matthew Moran, HMS Unicorn
  • Miriam McDonald, HES
  • Tim Boon, Head of Research, SMG
  • Karen Baker, Railway Museum
  • Jo March, Northumberland Archives

1.15 – 2.15 Lunch

2.15 – 3.45 Panel 6: Industrial Workplaces and Literary Culture

  • Ronan McGreechin (University of Strathclyde) – Illustrations and Sketches as Workplace Expression in the Denny Brother’s Drawing Office Scrapbook.
  • Kirstie Blair (University of Stirling): The Crafty Cal and the Great N. B. R.: Scottish Railway Poets and Workplace Identities.
  • Oliver Betts (National Railway Museum): George Gresswell – Engine Driver Poet.
  • Mike Sanders (University of Manchester): From Coalface to Typeface: The Literary Career of John Monk Foster.

3.45 – 4 Break

4 – 5.00 Closing roundtable: Brian Maidment, Florence Boos, Simon Kövesi

Victorian Literary Languages Workshop: Grammar and Philology

Victorian Literary Languages Research Network

Workshop One: Grammar and Philology

Lawson Room, School of English, University of St Andrews
Thursday 26 May

The first workshop of the ‘Victorian Literary Languages’ research network, co-organised by Gregory Tate (St Andrews) and Karin Koehler (Bangor), will be taking place in St Andrews on Thursday 26 and Friday 27 May. The aims of the network are to study the multilingualism of literature written in Victorian Britain and Ireland, and to explore the connections between the literary and linguistic histories of the four nations in the nineteenth century. The programme for the St Andrews workshop can be viewed here: Please email Greg Tate ( if you would like to attend part or all of the workshop online, or if you have any questions about the network.

Four Nations and Beyond: RSVP and SCVS event, 20 May 2022

Four Nations and Beyond

Periodical Studies and National Identities in the British Isles and Ireland 

Trades Hall, Glasgow. 20th May 2022

We are happy to welcome in-person and virtual participants to this event on Friday 20 May. Virtual registration remains open here. The programme is below, along with advance links to a selection of the papers and presentations.

RSVP Four Nations 20 May – schedule

Karin Koehler (University of Bangor), ‘Poetry, Language and National Identity in the North Wales Newspaper Press, c. 1850-1859’

Lisa Peters (independent scholar), ‘Gwalia: Creating a National Welsh Language Newspaper’

Lisa Peters, ‘Gwalia’

David Finkelstein (University of Westminster), ‘The International Typographical Trade Press and Labour Identity in Colonial Spaces’

David Finkelstein ‘International Typographical Trade Press’

Erick Boustead (independent scholar), ‘Chicago Irish Male Assimilation and “Mr Dooley”’

Erick Boustead, ‘Chicago Male Assimilation’

Emily Smith (Oklahoma Christian University), ‘The Fenian Sisterhood, Ladies Land Leaguers and the Woman Suffrage Question: The Representation of Women in the Victorian Irish Press’

Emily Smith ‘The Fenian Sisterhood’

Charlotte Lauder (University of Strathclyde/NLS), ‘From ‘Thistleites’ to ‘Thistleblaw’: The Scots Thistle (1885-2013), a Scottish Circulatory Manuscript Magazine’

Kirstie Blair, University of Strathclyde

Fionnuala Dillane, UCD

Cally Phillips, ‘Stepping Out of the Shadow of Peter Pan’

by Herbert Rose Barraud, sepia carbon print on card mount, 1892

I first encountered J. M. Barrie when I was seven. But not through Peter Pan. In 1970 my mum was working in the costume department at the Dundee Rep during a production of The Admirable Crichton and due to a child-care crisis I ended up in the stalls one day after school. Family legend has it that I got upset by the director’s ‘robust’ exchange with the actors and was taken backstage afterwards to see that it was all a theatrical illusion, not ‘real’. I met Crichton himself, removing his makeup. I was hooked on theatre from that point.

In 1978 I saw Andrew Birkin’s J. M. Barrie and the Lost Boys on TV and became interested in Barrie himself. In the early 1980s, while a student at St Andrews, I frequented the coffee shop which claimed from a blue plaque outside to be the home of the ‘real’ Admirable Crichton and inside had a beam bearing Barrie’s name on the roll call of former Rectors. The man and the play just wouldn’t let me go.

Fast forward to 1989 and I encountered Dear Brutus and Mary Rose at Drama School. I was amazed and impressed by the complexity of the plays, which weren’t ‘fashionable’ at that time but under radical directorship they revealed all kinds of things beyond the light Edwardian drawing room fare they were then categorised as.

A decade later I started on a PhD looking at S. R. Crockett and J. M. Barrie’s ‘ordinary heroes’ as examples of the Scots Romance tradition. Health and finances meant I had to abandon formal study, but neither author fully let me go.

In 2002 I was dramatist in residence for Dumfries and Galloway and tried at every turn to champion Barrie and his Dumfries connection – including a symposium day to commemorate the 100th anniversary of The Admirable Crichton. The day included a talk by Prof Ronnie Jack and a production of my own modern version of the play Down the Line. The play was performed by OUDS in Oxford the following year and in 2004 (the 100th anniversary of Peter Pan) I was involved with a number of projects, including writing a Peter Pan education pack.

More than another decade has passed. Life goes on. Barrie stays there in the background of my life, like a shadow I can’t get rid of. Not Peter Pan, never Peter Pan, (though I’ve dabbled with some of the earlier incarnations lately) and not so much the drama as the prose – including the ‘crossover’ works such as A Well-Remembered Voice. Whichever other Scots writer I am focusing on at any time, Barrie always seems to be there in the background.

I would have joined a J. M. Barrie Society any time in the last 40 years had one existed. The death of Prof Ronnie Jack late last year (and my experience setting up and running the S. R. Crockett literary society The Galloway Raiders) got me thinking that perhaps it was time to stop waiting and start doing something.

So, I’m in the process of setting up the J. M. Barrie Literary Society. I have no idea what form it will take. That depends on who joins and what they want from a society – and what they are prepared to contribute. I only know it will not be a Peter Pan society. It will be a grown up J. M. Barrie society which takes him out of Peter’s shadow and brings him and his work into the light.   The ‘launch’ date is set for May 9th. So if you’re interested in Barrie and his work and would like to be involved or have got ideas of the sort of society you’d like to be a member of – then get in touch. The email address is and the website is

Somewhere between the now cliched quotes: ‘to die will be an awfully big adventure’ and ‘there are few more impressive sights than a Scotsman on the make’ I hope we’ll be able to dig a bit deeper, set up and offer a tribute to Barrie and in the process honour the memory of Prof Ronnie Jack who was his greatest advocate of recent years. Someone has to do it. Why not join me?

Cally Phillips is an independent researcher, with strong interests in Scottish Victorian literature. For more information on her interests, see our Associates page.

click here

‘To Capture What We Cannot Keep’: Beatrice Colin’s 1880s fiction

Beatrice Colin’s To Capture What We Cannot Keep, published in 2016, is set in 1887, when a young Scottish widow, Caitriona Wallace, finds herself chaperoning two siblings in Paris. A chance meeting with an engineer engaged in the construction of the Eiffel Tower, Émile Nouguier, leads to romance. The plot investigates the tensions between their social positions, their assigned gender roles, their affiliations to Scotland and France, and between duty and desire in the late Victorian period. I asked Beatrice some questions about the process of writing a ‘neo-Victorian’ Scottish novel.

What drew you to set a novel in this particular period?

To write about Paris in the 1880s was a real joy. I love the city and know it well – my great aunt lived near the Bois de Bolougne. Also, I am drawn to times of change – I’ve written about the birth of the German film industry and the early days of Jazz in America. The Eiffel Tower was at the forefront of a new style of engineering, one which used iron instead of stone, and this meant large structures could be built in novel ways. Eiffel was initially a bridge builder and most of the structures he supervised were fashioned in his workshops and then put together on site like huge Meccano sets. I set the novel in 1887-1889, the two years the tower took to build, in the hope of capturing something of those times. I found that although it was a time of innovation in engineering, art and music, for example, Paris at that time was quite rigidly conservative city. The class system was still very much in place and while the Neo-Impressionists were painting the island of Le Grande Jatte in dots, at the same time and in the same spot, men were engaged in the archaic ritual of duelling.

Also, from a selfish point of view, I was tired of writing about war (I was and still am working on a novel about the Spanish Civil War) and wanted to write about something completely different.

To Capture What You Cannot Keep is set primarily in late nineteenth-century Paris and Glasgow. Were you consciously thinking about the differences – and similarities – between these cities? How did you want to represent these?

I was very conscious of the differences and similarities. Paris was, and is, a city where artists flock, to which people escape to paint or write and experience a certain kind of bohemian freedom. This idea of the city as the destination of choice for the artistic so they can starve in a garret has been portrayed in dozens of books and films from George Orwell’s Down and Out in Paris and London to Woody Allen’s Midnight in Paris.

What I discovered when I started to research the novel was that my impression of both cities wasn’t quite accurate. Glasgow in the late 19th century was a manufacturing city where vast wealth was generated, fortunes could be amassed and where successful men from lowly backgrounds, such as William Arrol, could rise quite quickly up the social ladder. It was very provincial compared to Paris but there is evidence of traffic between the cities. James Duncan, who owned Benmore House on the Cowal Pennisular, was an art collector and sugar baron, who regularly visited Paris to buy paintings and had a large collection of work by French artists. Gustave Eiffel knew William Arrol and was at the opening of the Forth Rail Bridge.

Paris was a city of huge contrast; as well as being at the centre of many artistic movements, it was also a city that stuck rigidly to the social seasons and where the ‘upper crust’ still locked themselves away on Bastille Day. But it was also a city that was good at hiding its past – only thirty years earlier it had been at war and yet you wouldn’t know it. Haussmann’s programme of demolition and construction had banished all the poverty and squalor to the outer arrondissements and the centre of Paris was, and still is, solidly affluent. The tower, however, was constructed specifically to people could look over the city; in Roland Barthes words, ‘it gives us the world to be read.’

In my novel, I wanted to show both cities in ways that we haven’t seen before. In Paris, I wanted to show the contrast between the very rich to the very poor, as well as between the artistic and the less celebrated, but equally creative, engineers. I also wanted to re-imagine Glasgow in the same period and portray a city as a powerhouse of manufacturing.

Following on from this, the novel sets up a strong contrast between the relative freedoms of France and the limitations of Cait’s life in Scotland. What impression did you want to convey of late Victorian Scotland?

I think being a woman in this period was hard in any city. Any sense of freedom granted to women in Paris was illusory; women were either wives, mistresses or prostitutes. Having said that, there were some extremely wealthy prostitutes, known as ‘Le Grande Horizontals,’ such as Emilienne d’Alencon. Cait is only thirty but she is a widow. In that period women without an income of their own had to either marry again or live in genteel poverty. Although technology and culture were changing fast, the position of women was the same as it had been for hundreds of years. The difference in Paris was wealth; rich women had more freedom.

How did you go about researching the historical background to the novel, and were any works particularly useful?

I looked for books printed in the mid-20th century when 1880s were still in living memory, such as Elegant Wits and Grand Horizontals; Paris-La Belle Epoque by Cornelia Otis Skinner (Michael Joseph, 1963). I also consulted many books on Eiffel such as Gustave Eiffel by Henri Loyette (Rizolli, New York, 1985). I used a Baedecker from 1900 to make sure all the practical details were correct. Otherwise, I consulted photographs, paintings, costume archives and, of course, visited all the locations.

Were you influenced by French and/or British writers from the late nineteenth century?

I read some Zola when researching the novel. I also read Henry James, Edith Wharton (although she was American she lived in Paris). I read a lot of contemporary fiction, rather than Victorian. Indeed, I see my work as contemporary fiction written about a historical period rather than ‘historical fiction’ which is a genre which comes with its own conventions.

Engineering is a central theme and provides a set of metaphors that run through To Capture What You Cannot Keep. What interested you about nineteenth-century engineering and engineers?

Partly the way that iron had such a huge and lasting impact on construction but it’s an area that no one ever talks about. The Eiffel Tower is one of the most iconic structures in the world and yet few people know when it was built, by whom and why. Likewise, structures such as the Forth Rail Bridge, which was constructed by William Arrol’s company, is both beautifully light and aesthetically pleasing – it’s a joy to cross on the train! And yet although other figures of the 19th century – the artists, writers and composers – are celebrated, few people have heard of William Arrol or Emile Nouguier. Most people don’t realise the Eiffel Tower was named after a man.

Do you consider To Capture What You Cannot Keep a part of a ‘neo-Victorian’ genre?

I feel that there are some similarities between my work and the work of writers such as Sarah Waters and Andrew Miller in that we look at the 19th century through a 21st century lens. I am actively drawn to representing the era in a way that is true and shy away from ‘mis-remembering’ the period for the sake of the plot, or simply transposing a 21st century story into corsets and stays. It was such a fascinating era and there was so much that changed in a relatively short time. I discovered much more that I couldn’t fit into the book that I want to write about. Steam locomotives, for example.

Interview by Kirstie Blair. Beatrice Colin is a Lecturer in Creative Writing at the University of Strathclyde.